Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits

*Reviews of Modern Physics* **79**, 135 (2007)

Linear optics with photo-detection is a prominent candidate for practical quantum computing. The protocol by Knill, Laflamme and Milburn [*Nature* 409 **46** (2001)] explicitly demonstrates that efficient scalable quantum computing with single photons, linear optical elements, and projective measurements is possible. Subsequently, several improvements on this protocol have started to bridge the gap between theoretical scalability and practical implementation. We review the original proposal and its improvements, and we give a few examples of experimental two-qubit gates. We discuss the use of realistic components, the errors they induce in the computation, and how they can be corrected.